Understanding Your Student Loan Forgiveness Options in 2024

With over $1.6 trillion in outstanding federal student loan debt held by over 40 million Americans, many borrowers are understandably eager to learn more about existing and potential future student loan forgiveness programs. The upcoming year, 2024, is poised to bring both the continuation of current relief initiatives as well as possible new expansions or changes to forgiveness policies under the Biden Administration.

Current Federal Student Loan Forgiveness Programs

There are several existing programs through which borrowers may qualify for partial or full cancellation of their federal student loan debt. The most notable options are:


Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF)

The PSLF program forgives the remaining balance on Direct Loans after 120 qualifying monthly payments are made by borrowers who work full-time for a qualifying public service employer during that time, such as governments, nonprofits, or public education or healthcare institutions.

To be eligible for PSLF, a borrower’s loans must be Direct Loans, and they must be enrolled in an income-driven repayment plan. Only payments made after October 1, 2007 qualify. Complicated rules related to qualifying employment and repayment plans have caused widespread frustration for applicants in the past.


Due to these past issues, the Biden Administration launched a revamped PSLF waiver in October 2021 that offers expanded forgiveness eligibility. Under this waiver, any prior payment that was nonqualifying due to loan type or repayment plan could now qualify if the payment was made before October 31, 2022.

Though the waiver ends in just a few months, borrowers can still apply for the standard PSLF program after that date. The Department of Education has also hired more reviewers and made improvements to help approve more applications. PSLF will remain a core forgiveness option into 2024 and beyond.

Income-Driven Repayment (IDR) Plans

Borrowers enrolled in IDR plans such as Income-Based Repayment (IBR), Pay As You Earn (PAYE), or Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE) may see their remaining loan balances fully forgiven after 20-25 years of qualifying monthly payments, depending on the plan. This debt cancellation function is essentially like a student loan forgiveness program.

In 2023, the Biden Administration announced it was moving up the forgiveness timelines. Qualifying payments will count toward IDR forgiveness at 20 years for new borrowers in eligible plans as of July 2022. Undergraduate debt for existing borrowers will be canceled after 20 years in an IDR plan instead of 25.


While IDR forgiveness isn’t immediate, it provides an important long-term option for borrowers committing to repayment over extended periods within reasonable structures tied to income level. This option will certainly remain available through 2024 and after.

Borrower Defense to Repayment Discharges

This program allows for federal student loan cancellation if a borrower’s school engaged in certain misconduct like violating state law, misrepresenting itself or program costs/outcomes, or committing other acts that violate borrowers’ rights. Success rates have improved under the Biden Administration.

Closed School Discharges

Borrowers may qualify for full federal loan forgiveness if their school closed while they were enrolled or soon after if they did not complete their program. The closure must have happened on or after November 1, 2013.

Total and Permanent Disability (TPD) Discharges

Borrowers who provide documentation of a qualifying disability (serious physical or mental impairment that prevents substantial gainful employment) can apply to have their loans fully discharged. Recipients must undergo a three-year monitoring period following discharge.

These established programs will continue accepting applications through 2024 and beyond as long as borrowers meet eligibility criteria. While the application processes can involve paperwork and processing times, millions have already received relief through these important avenues.

Potential Future Expansions

In addition to ongoing programs, many observers and policymakers are advocating for expanded student debt forgiveness to provide more widespread relief. Some proposals under discussion for 2024 and after include:

Broad Student Loan Cancellation

Advocates support forgiving up to $50,000 in loans per borrower through executive action. President Biden previously signaled support for some broad cancellation but remained undecided on the amount, leaving the White House evaluating options that could potentially be announced in 2023 or 2024.

Community College Funding

Some propose free community college as a debt-free alternative, potentially retroactively forgiving existing loans for those who attended two-year public colleges. This could be coupled with workforce development programs to boost economic mobility.

Targeted Occupation-Based Relief

Forgiving loans for careers in need areas like healthcare, teaching, engineering, or public service could encourage growth in important fields while providing targeted relief. Amounts forgiven would likely be capped.

Simplifying PSLF

Further, PSLF reforms considered aim to smooth eligibility issues, automate employment certification, and expand qualifying employers. Enacting recommendations from the Accountability Office could help more applicants receive relief.

Enhancing IDR Plans

Potential changes analyzed include reducing monthly payment amounts, counting more payment types, shortening forgiveness timelines, automating recertification, and eliminating taxes on canceled debts. Combined, these could incentivize more borrowers to opt in.

Any major programs adopted depend on forthcoming administrative or legislative actions. But student debt cancellation remains an active policy discussion, and an executive order could come at any time. Continued advocacy, studies, and midterm election outcomes may also shape 2024 changes.

Applying for Loan Forgiveness in 2024

For borrowers hoping to take advantage of existing or new programs, there are several important next steps to focus on through 2024:

  • Audit your loans. Understand your complete balance, repayment history, loan types, and servicer to maximize forgiveness eligibility through programs like PSLF or IDR.
  • Enroll in an IDR plan. Sign up for an income-driven repayment option like IBR, PAYE, or REPAYE to start the IDR forgiveness clock or meet standards for programs like PSLF.
  • Stay in touch with employers. If pursuing PSLF, work with HR to ensure employment is certified annually as qualifying public service each October. Make supplemental or reconsideration requests if necessary.
  • Consolidate eligible loans. Consider Direct Loan consolidation to allow all loans to qualify for certain programs. Note deadlines like the PSLF limited waiver expiring in October 2022.
  • Submit annual recertification on time. Precisely following the annual income/family size verification process is crucial to remain in good financial standing and progress toward IDR forgiveness.
  • Check for updates. Closely monitor policy changes or new relief programs announced in 2023 or 2024 that your situation may qualify for. Applications take some time to process, so act sooner than later when eligible.

With organized record-keeping and proactive participation in available programs, many borrowers may see forgiveness over the next two years simply by meeting existing requirements. Staying informed and engaged will help ensure you take full advantage of all relief options.

FAQs on Student Loan Forgiveness in 2024

Here are answers to some frequently asked questions:

Is new student loan forgiveness likely in 2024?

It’s impossible to say for certain, but continued advocacy efforts and midterm elections could influence whether the Biden Administration pursues new broad cancellation programs. Some form of targeted forgiveness seems more certain. Stay tuned for policy discussions and act if new programs open in 2024.

Do I need to consolidate to qualify for forgiveness?

Not always, but in some cases, consolidation can allow all federal loans to be considered for programs that formerly only applied to certain loan types. For PSLF specifically, Direct Loan consolidation may still make certain payments eligible under the limited waiver ending October 2022.

What are the tax implications of loan forgiveness?

Any loan amounts forgiven are generally considered taxable income by the IRS, meaning taxes will be owed on the total forgiven in the year of discharge. However, existing exceptions apply based on the forgiveness program and borrower factors. Congress could additionally pass legislation making certain cancellations nontaxable.

Will I still have to pay off private student loans?

No, federal student loan forgiveness programs only apply to loans received directly from the US Department of Education through the Federal Student Aid office. Any private student loans through banks or other private lenders would remain the borrower’s full responsibility after federal cancellation.

Can I apply for forgiveness now and receive it later?

It depends on the program. PSLF application can be submitted after 120 qualifying payments but before the full balance is forgiven to establish eligibility. Meanwhile, forgiveness under IDR plans only occurs after 20/25 years of repayment. Early PSLF application allows issues to surface/resolve while continuing payments.



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